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Sooooo, I like backend now. Primarily because of Node.js, I love that thing. And as you might know, this blog streams my laptop’s speaker output, so using websockets was an obvious choice. Now, I would not want someone else to take over and hence would deploy some authentication mechanism.

The websocket library I chose to use is ws. And my plan is simple.

  • Acquire a token from the server

  • Send that token as an additional header

  • On server side, receive the header, if valid, then ok but if not then fail the connection

And I got to know this really cool thing called JWT. In one line, it is a brilliant way of having stateless authentication.

And to quote them:

JSON Web Token (JWT) is an open standard (RFC 7519) that defines a compact and self-contained way for securely transmitting information between parties as a JSON object. This information can be verified and trusted because it is digitally signed. JWTs can be signed using a secret (with the HMAC algorithm) or a public/private key pair using RSA.

Equipped with all the awesome libraries and articles the Node.js community provides, I ended up actually implementing the plan.

JWT module for node provides all the necessary functions and the ones relevant in my case were sign and verify.

To sign an object I need a secret key and the object to sign. I can also give additional options such as after how long the token will expire. And it looks some thing like this:

var jwt = require('jsonwebtoken')
var token = jwt.sign({name:'iostreamer'},'secret-key',{
            expiresIn : 15 * 24 * 60 * 60 * 1000 // 15 days

Handle tokens with care, these are signed using the secret key not encrypted.

Client side

Now in client land, I am supposed to have a token. Let’s say I fetched it from the server. Next is to establish a websocket connection and send this acquired token in headers’ section.

And this is how we do it (I think) using the ws module. While initializing, we pass an [options] object, which contains the token, and specifies that it should be added to the headers.

WebSocket = require 'ws'
ws = new WebSocket 'ws://localhost:8000',{
        headers : {
          token: "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJuYW1lIjoiaW9zdHJlYW1lciJ9.oNx-4e9hldyATpdPZghd_sjX8DhTkQFVDBxIhKh4MC4"

Server side

The server land follows the same pattern as in the client land. While initializing, we pass an [options] object, which has a function under the property field verifyClient.

verifyClient is provided with two arguments:

  • info Object:
    • origin String: The value in the Origin header indicated by the client.
    • req http.ClientRequest: The client HTTP GET request.
    • secure Boolean: true if req.connection.authorized or req.connection.encrypted is set.
  • cb Function: A callback that must be called by the user upon inspection of the info fields. Arguments in this callback are:
    • result Boolean: Whether the user accepts or not the handshake.
    • code Number: If result is false this field determines the HTTP error status code to be sent to the client.
    • name String: If result is false this field determines the HTTP reason phrase.

And this is how I did it in my code:

var WebSocketServer = require('ws').Server
var ws = new WebSocketServer({
    verifyClient: function (info, cb) {
        var token = info.req.headers.token
        if (!token)
            cb(false, 401, 'Unauthorized')
        else {
            jwt.verify(token, 'secret-key', function (err, decoded) {
                if (err) {
                    cb(false, 401, 'Unauthorized')
                } else {
                    info.req.user = decoded //[1]


Since we use the middleware pattern so heavily with express, I tried doing the same with ws. So, with [1] I make available the user as a property of req.

And while handling connections it is available like this:

ws.on('connection', (conn) => {
    var user = conn.upgradeReq.user
    conn.send('Welcome! ' +
    conn.on('message', (data) => {})

And that is all I did today. Along with watching Big Bang Theory.

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